The future of maritime autonomy: an operators perspective
P Michael A Rodey Senior innovation manager A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S DENMARK
This presentation will provide attendees with a perspective of the future direction of autonomous shipping from the point of view of the world's largest shipping company. It is a must attend presentation for attendees keen to understand the drivers and requirements necessary for widespread adoption of autonomous shipping.
Advancing maritime autonomy – global ecosystem activities
Päivi Haikkola Ecosystem lead DIMECC FINLAND
One Sea - Autonomous Maritime Ecosystem was founded in 2016 as a cooperative effort of seven marine and ICT companies. During 2017 the ecosystem has established a test area for autonomous vessels and assisted the IMO in understanding where the industry currently stands on autonomy. In 2017-2018 the plan is to create a project to enable remote piloting, research on maritime connectivity and a demonstration project on autonomous ships. The ecosystem is also working for industry-approved levels of autonomy. The ongoing research and other activities will be presented, together with the direction the cooperation alliance has taken.
Government/industry partnerships to speed up autonomous ships to market
Raphaël Fabian EU affairs officer Rolls-Royce BELGIUM
As autonomous ship technology advances more rapidly than ever could have been expected, its deployment to market will need to be supported by the appropriate regulatory framework, both nationally and globally. Talking to governments is crucial, not only to secure the needed legislation but also to unlock research capability and R&T funding, as well as to manage growing social and environmental concerns. These are all key to boosting the speed of autonomous ships to market.
Gradual development towards autonomous ships
Dr Kalevi Tervo Global programme manager ABB Marine FINLAND
When looking at the road towards autonomous shipping, it is anticipated that in the majority of ships the computer will not take over the responsibility of operation before the general public, industry, operators, owners and officials have learned to trust the new automation solutions. ABB sees the transition towards autonomous shipping happening gradually, step by step starting from assisting solutions for specific operations; when all stakeholders learn to trust that the most recent step delivers the benefits, the next step can be taken. This presentation will discuss the most recent results and case examples in ABB's in development towards autonomous ships.
Panel Discussion: Developing autonomous shipping
Matthew Crane Head of maritime technology and innovation Government Department for Transport UK
Raphaël Fabian EU affairs officer Rolls-Royce BELGIUM
Johan Gahnstrom Senior marine manager Intertanko UK
Svein David Medhaug Project manager The Norwegian Maritime Authority NORWAY
Mike Piskur Programme manager Great Lakes St. Lawrence Governors & Premiers USA
Erik I Tvedt Special advisor, technical regulation Danish Maritime Authority DENMARK
Moderators: James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG
Navigation and Positioning Challenges
James Fanshawe Chairman UK MASRWG UK
Connectivity, autonomous navigation system and a combined simulator for research
Dr Marko Höyhtyä Senior scientist, project manager VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd FINLAND
A critical component of any unmanned and autonomous ship is the wireless communication system supporting efficient and safe operation in any environment. This talk highlights the connectivity challenges of an autonomous/unmanned ship defining the high-level architecture and the required subsystems. We will describe our ship handling simulator, focusing especially on how it can be used for safety validation of autonomous navigation systems. Finally, we will discuss our combined simulator that includes a connectivity component to study effects of packet losses and delays on safe operation.
Sense and avoid in high-traffic areas
Bruno Sourice Unmanned surface vehicle architect - SIREHNA DCNS Research FRANCE
One of the main problems in the implementation of a USV is her capacity to navigate in safe conditions. Navigation becomes critical when the traffic is dense, especially near harbour. SIREHNA proposes a solution based on multiple sensors acquisition and on multiple avoidance algorithms to avoid collision. The approach tested at sea is to take advantage of each sensor technology and combine them with different avoidance strategies. The result is improvement of the USV manoeuvres at low and high speeds modelled on human behaviour.
Different navigation strategies for an unmanned vessel
Autonomous or unmanned vessels will need to use different strategies for navigation and control. This paper will give an overview of different strategies and technologies that can be used in different parts of a sea voyage. It will also explain how vessels could operate in emergency situations with and without communication with a remote control centre.
Towards a framework for assurance of autonomous navigation systems in the maritime industry
Andreas Brandsæter Researcher DNV GL NORWAY
We discuss potential assurance frameworks for autonomous navigation systems in the maritime industry, with emphasis on testing and verification of the systems perception performance and capacities. Ongoing research in this field has revealed profound challenges related to artificial situation awareness and machine perception specific to the marine environment. The lack of a clear and transparent framework and methodologies to assure the safety associated with the usage of such solutions, have been identified as key barriers for the implementation of autonomous navigation solutions at scale. Because the machine perception and situational awareness algorithms are expected to be partly or fully based on machine learning algorithms, including deep learning, whose functional reasoning is challenging or even impossible to understand and predict, the verification of such systems is fundamentally different from a traditional verification process based on physical understanding and theory. We review several methods for testing autonomous navigation systems, proposed and used mainly in the automotive industry, and discuss how these methods can be adapted, combined and applied to form a framework for assurance of autonomous systems in the maritime industry.
Autonomous marine navigation in GNSS denied environments
Geraint West Global business manager - oceanographic Sonardyne International Ltd UK
The challenge of establishing an autonomous ship's position reliably in extreme and challenging marine environments such as shipping channels, harbours or at offshore energy installations, will be discussed in the context of recent GNSS jamming and spoofing events. The speaker will present preliminary outcomes from a UK Government-funded project, AutoMINDER, which extends the available positioning sensors to include new types and new integration methods, along with a standardised integration architecture that supports easy adoption. The added redundancy, diversity and support for graceful degradation to failsafe navigation will be applied to a number of unmanned and autonomous ship operations.
Day 2: Thursday 28 June
Concepts, Case Studies and Innovation
Nick Lambert Director NL Associates Ltd UK
The costs and benefits of various degrees of autonomy: a case study
Dr Henry Robinson Technical director H-Scientific Ltd UK
This paper addresses the practical, technical and economic implications of various degrees of autonomy. Autonomy can mean anything from a simple “heading-hold” autopilot to something vastly more sophisticated – and expensive. Full “autonomy” implies being able to solve whatever problems might arise, including a host of issues such as equipment malfunction and propeller entanglement, without human intervention; but the cost of this capability needs to be more than matched by the value of achieving it. By way of example, this study considers the requirements for pipeline and reservoir surveys.
Unmanned systems evolution: from aircraft to ships
Adam Ehart Chief engineer unmanned maritime systems Textron Unmanned Systems USA
Textron Unmanned Systems (formerly AAI Corporation) has continually provided unmanned aerial vehicles to the United States military since the late 1980s, transferred that technology to the maritime domain in 2007, and is currently executing the first US Navy Unmanned Surface Vessel programme of record. This presentation/paper traces the evolution from tele-operated aerial vehicles to autonomous multi-mission maritime vehicles with universal, multiple domain command and control systems. It provides an understanding of the system architecture and concept of operations necessary to support autonomous maritime operations. Emphasis is given to adapting existing manned vessels to optionally piloted vessels.
Zero-maintenance and fault-free system requirements for autonomous ships
Klaas Visser Assistant professor marine engineering Delft University of Technology NETHERLANDS
Although the experiences with unmanned air vehicles, unmanned automotive vehicles and space vehicles have fuelled the expectations of the early introduction of autonomous ships, typical ship design-related requirements need to be solved. These include long voyage distances and long periods at sea. Given the absence of a maintenance crew, a zero-maintenance requirement and the use of system components with very high reliability and a high tolerance to system reconfigurations are essential. The presentation will show an analysis of solutions in aerospace and automotive areas that could support autonomous ships, and an analysis of degradation control of ship systems.
Smart Marine: the future of shipping is now
Andrea Morgante Head of digital, marine solutions Wärtsilä NORWAY
The vast majority of maritime stakeholders agree that the digital transformation will have a radical impact on the industry. Yet only a few have a clear idea of where to start, and many see it as a long-term scenario. This presentation will highlight how new technologies and digitalisation are changing the maritime world today, and why the future Smart Marine ecosystem will involve connecting ‘smart’ vessels with ‘smart’ ports to enable an even more efficient use of resources.
FernSAMS: Fully remotely controlled tugboat concept including autonomous assistance
Hans-Christoph Burmeister Group manager - sea traffic and nautical solutions Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services CML GERMANY
FernSAMS is a German research project relating to the deployment of remotely controlled tugboats for berthing and unberthing manoeuvres of large merchant ships. It includes defining operating scenarios, designing a remotely controlled tugboat, full automation of line handling, development of communication and data exchange systems as well as an assistance system for remote operation. Test and validation is done by ship handling simulators and model boats. Industrial development partners include VOITH and MacGregor Hatlapa.
Demonstrating the safety case for international transits with autonomous systems
Richard Daltry Technical director ASV Global UK
This presentation will focus on how ASV Global’s autonomy system has developed systems and processes to achieve autonomous international transits. As part of this, ASV Global will present the safety case for the first international transit of a powered USV, and the development and technological underpinning that make this possible. ASV Global has the most advanced autonomy system for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to date. With over 1,300 days of unmanned operations and many firsts within the industry, ASV Global has built a strong case history to allow for safe operations over the horizon.
Value of autonomy measured through operations on multiple commercial vessels
Michael Johnson CEO Sea Machines Robotics USA
Sea Machines has deployed autonomous command systems on multiple vessels operating in various applications, working with owners and managers who have been operating vessels for generations, and who today are witnessing stagnation in the industry through continued reliance on highly manual 20th century vessel command. Smart-ship technology such as autonomous command and ship-to-shore connectivity provides immense value with new efficiencies, predictability and reduced liabilities. Sea Machines will present and discuss use cases of marine autonomy on actual vessels performing different tasks at sea and the real value to these companies as measured by multiple stakeholders.
Situational Awareness and Decision Support
Nick Lambert Director NL Associates Ltd UK
Sea Hunter and maritime autonomous behaviours
Dr Tim Barton Maritime chief engineer Leidos USA
Leidos has worked with the US DARPA and the US ONR on DARPA’s ACTUV programme to design and build Sea Hunter, the technology demonstration vehicle that ONR is further developing through the Medium Displacement Unmanned Surface Vessel (MDUSV) programme. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the programme and vessel, maritime autonomy architecture, behaviours and missions, and recent efforts in autonomous survey and autonomous logistics. The views, opinions and/or findings expressed are those of the author(s) and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the US Government.
Sensor design choices for precise manoeuvring and situational awareness
Russ Miles Chief technical officer Guidance Marine Ltd UK
Whether we’re talking about a fully autonomous vessel or advanced mariner assistance systems, we need position sensor data for two different purposes: first for route finding and collision avoidance; second for precise manoeuvring. These two purposes bring different requirements in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and coverage. We look at how this has worked out in sensor choice and design in recent developments at Guidance Marine for precision manoeuvring support systems incorporating radar, lidar and cameras. We report on practical experience with automated operations and mariner assistance on vessels in service.
Autonomous ship technology – a new approach to sensor visualisation
Ralph Dodds Programme lead, innovation and autonomous systems Atlas Elektronik UK Ltd UK
One of the greatest challenges posed by increasingly complex maritime autonomous shipping is the ability of operators to evaluate the data that their sensors provide. Traditional flatscreen displays often increase the workload to the point that single operators are unable to assimilate all of the information presented and thus compromise their decision-making ability. Atlas Elektronik UK, working with the University of Birmingham on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence, has been developing new, 3D visualisation techniques drawn from the world of virtual reality to improve situational awareness from multiple sensors and enhance the human operator’s decision-making process.
Verification of the communication environment for remote control of ships
Prof Etsuro Shimizu Professor Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology JAPAN
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology has been developing remotely controlled autonomous boats since 2014. A wireless LAN and a mobile phone network are adopted as a communication method between the boat and the remote station onshore. The communication quality of both networks is examined at Tokyo Bay. The required communication quality to operate ships is also discussed.
Autonomous vessels and why humans remain in the loop
Vegard Evjen Hovstein CEO Maritime Robotics AS NORWAY
As we move into more autonomous vessels, the reality is that it will still be some years before fully autonomous/self-managing vessels are able to handle any situation. Technology is pushing boundaries, but technology needs certification standards for autonomous operation. Who is to blame when an autonomous vessel sails into a small kayak? Autonomous actions within a constrained set is probably what we could expect shortly, and the human still needs to be in the loop and have situational understanding as if he or she were on the bridge. The presentation will show how the operator of USVs can achieve this.
A self-awareness system for autonomous ships
Dino Mandic Founder and CEO SailRouter BV NETHERLANDS
In this talk we present a performance monitoring and prediction system for autonomous ships. We use a wave recognition system that computes directed wave parameters using sensor fusion of the data measured from retail onboard MEMS devices. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on a neural network approach and computes from measurement the characteristic wave height, the significant wave period and the encounter angle of a ship with a running sea. Based on reconstructed wave parameters we obtain predictors for key operability and safety performance parameters of a ship. We propose this as a self-awareness system for autonomous ships.
Day 3: Friday 29 June
John Haynes Managing director Shock Mitigation Ltd UK
Interaction between manned and unmanned ships
Dr Sauli Ahvenjärvi Principal lecturer Satakunta University of Applied Sciences FINLAND
An important aspect of the introduction of autonomous ships is the interaction between manned and unmanned ships. After the introduction of autonomous ships there will also be manned sea-going vessels operating in the same traffic areas. What kind of impact will the interaction between manned and unmanned ships have on the rules, procedures and general safety of seafaring? What has to be taken into account regarding technology, training of seafarers, methods and forms of communication, and even standardisation of the behaviour of autonomous ships, to ensure smooth interaction between vessels, good predictability and maximum safety?
Inmarsat – Autonomous Ship
Stein Oro Vice president Inmarsat Maritime NETHERLANDS
The future of connected ships lies in highspeed networks such as Fleet Xpress, which guarantee the app-triggered bandwidth to support the autonomous ships of tomorrow. To meet regulatory, safety and security needs alone, communications must be accurate, scalable and support the multiple systems to achieve redundancy.
Broadband connectivity supports the real-time decision-making, remote monitoring/control and automated processes that will support the emergence of the autonomous ship. In this presentation, Inmarsat will explore how satellite communications are already being used to trial the behaviour of complete autonomous ship systems and consider their consequences for regulation, cyber security and seafarers.
The mariner in the age of automation
Gordon Meadow Associate professor/chair MASSIG IMarEST Southampton Solent University UK
Prof John Cross Professor Marine Institute of Memorial University CANADA
It is widely acknowledged that the mariner’s role will change with the coming of autonomous and unmanned ships. This will result in the elimination of some established skills as well as the development of new ones, which will inevitably cause changes in the required courses for mariners. The presentation will examine future training course requirements for ships' officers and present recommendations in the form of potential modifications for IMO model courses. Recommendations result from careful task analysis and further draw upon the experiences of ships' officers, crucially identifying the skill requirements of both the ship and the mariner of the future.
Legal and Regulatory Frameworks
John Haynes Managing director Shock Mitigation Ltd UK
Rolls-Royce autonomous COLREG-compliant collision avoidance – breakthrough result analysis of latest collaboration studies
Iiro Lindborg General manager – remote and autonomous operations Rolls-Royce FINLAND
Compliance with current and future regulations is instrumental in the wide-scale exploitation of unmanned vessels at sea. Furthermore, satisfactory autonomous operation in accordance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs) is pivotal to maritime safety. With this in mind, Rolls-Royce has been developing autonomous COLREG-compliant collision avoidance in collaboration with industrial and academic partners. This development is further reaching than the state of the art and therefore more robust to the real world; it is also seafarer-like for smoother adoption into service.
Autonomous ships – how to clear the regulatory barriers
The presentation will contain key conclusions and recommendations from CORE Advokatfirma's 'Analysis of the Regulatory Barriers for Autonomous Ships'. It was carried out as an advisor to the Danish Maritime Authority and will be submitted as an information paper to the IMO MSC 99 in May 2018 in connection with the 'Regulatory scoping exercise for the use of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS)' undertaken by IMO's Maritime Safety Committee. The presentation will touch upon the following topics: navigations and seaway regulations; manning and role of future 'seafarers' and shore controllers; protection of the marine environment; construction and design of ships; liability and insurance; cyber security and anti-terror. The focus will be on providing a common 'language' for discussing regulatory barriers for autonomous ships internationally, namely in relation to the definition of 'autonomous ships' and 'autonomy levels' as well as in the approach to key regulatory issues. Recommendations as to potential solutions to the regulatory barriers/challenges will be included as well.
Autonomous Vessels and UNCLOS
Xu Muzi Research assistant Centre for International Law, National University of Singapore SINGAPORE
The presentation will discuss whether autonomous vessels (AV) comply with the legal framework set by the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea by interpreting: Article 94: Would construction, design, equipment and seaworthiness requirements under UNCLOS apply to AV? Would the shore-based controller of the vessel satisfy the manning standards under both UNCLOS and SOLAS V/14?
Article 98: How would the mandatory obligation to assist a distressed ship under both UNCLOS and SOLAS V/33 apply to AV? Article 101: Analyse piracy incidents in Asia in the past four years and determine whether piracy should be considered as a security concern for AV. Article 211: Minimise vessel-sourced pollution.
Beyond Colregs – wider legal considerations associated with autonomous vessels
Mark Johnson Counsel Reed Smith UK
Autonomous shipping is not far away. The smart ship is expected to revolutionise the landscape of ship design and operations. However, before the revolution becomes a reality, the legal and regulatory framework needs to be considered to allow for the safe operation of vessels. Particular consideration needs to be given to where the distinction between the ‘technical’ and ‘human factor’ will blur; the more autonomous the vessel, the more likely it is that product liability issues will arise. Mark Johnson will highlight some of the legal challenges that need be addressed
Autonomous vessels on the not-so-distant horizon: a regulatory framework analysis
Sean Pribyl Attorney Blank Rome LLP USA
The United States Government is only now beginning to comprehend the benefits and risks of autonomous vessels, including the legal issues regarding their operations and necessary port infrastructure. This presentation will provide an overview of the rapidly developing implementation of automated technologies in the US maritime industry, including those related to autonomous vessels. Moreover, it will provide a critical overview of the international best practices, current legal regime and standards under which autonomous vessels must operate. It will also discuss the rapidly growing interest in autonomous vessels in the United States, a key player in international maritime developments.
Please Note: This conference programme may be subject to change